Історія вишивки

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Виникнення вишивання, одного з наймасовіших видів народного мистецтва, відноситься до епохи первісної культури і пов'язане з появою першого стібка при шитті одягу зі шкір тварин.

Вишивкою називається прикраса виробів з різних матеріалів орнаментальним візерунком або сюжетним зображенням виконаними нитками і іншими матеріалами вручну за допомогою голки або машинним способом.

Матеріалом для вишивки в різний час служили жили тварин, натуральні або пофарбовані нитки льону, конопель, бавовни, шовку, вовни, волосся, а також перли і дорогоцінні камені, намиста і бісер, блискітки, черепашки, золоті і мідні бляшки, монети . Вишивка тісно пов'язана з побутом, працею, природою і, таким чином, завжди відображала художні смаки і уявлення, виявляла національну своєрідність і майстерність кожного народу.

Перехід від кам'яного і кістяного шила до кістяний, а потім бронзової та сталевої голці сприяв винаходу і вдосконалення все нових і нових способів шиття і вишивання.

Виникнувши в далекій давнині, мистецтво декоративної вишивки на протязі багатьох століть зберігається в оздобленні житла, одягу і різних предметів побуту.

Немає точних відомостей про те, де і коли з'явилася вишивка взагалі, і коли вишивка хрестом виділилася в окремий вид рукоділля. Оригінальних вишивок, що датуються раніше ХII століття, майже не залишилося. Але зображення одягу та предметів інтер'єру свідчать про те, що вишивка з'явилася набагато раніше. У різних країнах візерунки відрізнялися за стилем і використовуваним кольорам. У вишивці відбивалися національний колорит і власне бачення краси кожного народу.

В Західній Європі лічильна вишивка стала особливо популярна в ХVI столітті. У той час вона складалася в основному з біблійних сюжетів і текстів, що поєднують різні техніки виконання. До кінця ХVIII століття на зразках вишивки виразно став переважати класичний стежок хрестом. А за тематикою вишивки стали більш різноманітні.

На Сході вишивками традиційно прикрашали домашнє начиння - килими, накидки, в'ючних мішки. Відмінною особливістю східних вишивок є різноманіття застосовуваних квітів і складність орнаменту. Великий шовковий шлях сприяв поширенню вишивки по Європі.

В Росії вишивка завжди була дуже символічна. Деякі візерунки народилися ще в глибоку давнину і несуть на собі відбиток язичницької символіки. Знахідки археологів свідчать про те, що на Русі вишивали ще в Х столітті. Поступово вишивка набуває все більшого поширення в оздобленні костюма і предметів побуту. З ХVIII століття вона входить в життя всіх верств населення.

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