Історія вишивки бісером

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Традиція розшивати одяг, предмети побуту намистинами, черепашками, перлами існує у багатьох народів. У Росії мистецтво вишивки бісером сягає своїм корінням в глибоке минуле. Швидше за все, воно прийшло до нас з Візантії.

Згідно з археологічними даними, бісер був знайомий уже людям в Київській Русі. Яскраві, барвисті вироби з бісеру та стеклярусу отримали в Росії надзвичайно широке поширення.

Гарний і міцний матеріал з успіхом використовувався при оформленні інтер'єрів, для обробки народних костюмів і предметів культового призначення. Чого тільки не робили наші предки з бісеру, стеклярусу і намистин! Область застосування цього матеріалу виявилася дуже широкою - від дитячої іграшки до гобеленів. Вишивали картини з жанровими сценками, ікони. Стеклярусними гобеленами прикрашали стіни у палацах, в тому числі і імператорських.

Бісер застосовувався для прикраси одягу та виготовлення різних предметів її оздоблення. Традиційний російський костюм був дуже барвистим. У музеях можна побачити численні шиті бісером зразки одягу, головних уборів, поясів, намист.

Ряд виробів з бісеру призначався для церковного вжитку. Це являє собою прикрашене бісером ікони, оклади до них, різні ритуальні предмети - одяг, свічники, ціпки.

З кінця XIX століття вишивка бісером широко використовується для прикраси вечірніх нарядів, дамських сумочок. Вишивки бісером, плетені або ткані прикраси все частіше можна було побачити на виставках і в модних салонах. Подарувати бісерні дрібничку, виконану своїми руками, вважалося ознакою хорошого тону. Це міг бути вишитий гаманець, чохол на люльку або ручку, прикрашена бісером шкатулка.

З початку XX століття бісер міцно утвердився в світі моди. Сучасні модельєри розглядають бісер як унікальний матеріал, який прийшов до нас із глибини століть нарівні з дорогоцінними каменями і не поступається їм у блиску і красі. Старовинні роботи служать невичерпним джерелом нових ідей і натхнення. Запозичення окремих прийомів, техніки виконання, елементів орнаменту надає сучасним речам незвичайний колорит.

В наш час як ніколи стали цінуватися вироби, створені вручну. У них найбільш повно можуть бути виражені індивідуальність людини, його творчі здібності, багата фантазія.

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